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Luke 10:25-37 – The Good Samaritan

Summary

In the course of a discussion about what it means to love one's neighbor, Jesus tells a parable about a man in need who receives compassionate care from a person who was supposed to be his enemy, a Samaritan.

Analysis

The context in which Jesus tells this parable is important for understanding what the parable itself means. The Gospel's narrator reveals that the legal expert talking to Jesus is attempting "to justify himself" when he asks Jesus, "And who is my neighbor?" His intention, therefore, is to limit the understanding of who rightly can be considered his neighbor, to limit the range of people whom he must love. The parable responds by expanding the notion of who qualifies as a person's neighbor.

The parable itself is a story of great compassion coming from an unlikely source. Jesus certainly presents the injured man as a Jew, yet leaders among his own people--the priest and the Levite--refuse to help him. These two passersby are religious figures, and their associations with the Jerusalem temple make them connected to the heart of Jewish identity and piety. The Samaritan who appears on the scene is out of place in Judea, on a road between Jerusalem and Jericho. Because most Samaritans and Jews held deep-seated resentments against the other group, the compassion and actions of the Samaritan in the parable are surprising. He reflects the lengths to which love will go. He treats the injured man not as an enemy but as a neighbor, as one of his own.

The conclusion of the story is also important. Jesus does not ask the legal expert to identify who in the parable is his neighbor, as if that is what this man really needs to discover. Jesus asks him to identify who in the parable is "a neighbor to the man who fell into the hands of the robbers." The point is that the parable and Jesus' concluding question force the lawyer to consider the nature of neighborly activity. Jesus directs him to see neighborliness in the actions of the Samaritan and not to speculate about what might qualify a person to be considered someone else's neighbor. Since a Samaritan is the parable's model character, the legal expert conversing with Jesus must learn about genuine love from the example of a person he would regard as his enemy. Jesus has reframed the question that prompted the parable in the first place; instead of identifying who counts as a neighbor to be loved, Jesus indicates that a person truly acts as a neighbor through loving. The legal expert wants to know who deserves his love. Jesus replies by showing how authentic love will seek out, even in the unlikeliest of places, neighbors to receive compassion and care.

Luke 10:25-37

The Parable of the Good Samaritan

25 Just then a lawyer stood up to test Jesus.* ‘Teacher,’ he said, ‘what must I do to inherit eternal life?’ 26He said to him, ‘What is written in the law? What do you read there?’ 27He answered, ‘You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbour as yourself.’ 28And he said to him, ‘You have given the right answer; do this, and you will live.’

29 But wanting to justify himself, he asked Jesus, ‘And who is my neighbour?’ 30Jesus replied, ‘A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell into the hands of robbers, who stripped him, beat him, and went away, leaving him half dead. 31Now by chance a priest was going down that road; and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 32So likewise a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. 33But a Samaritan while travelling came near him; and when he saw him, he was moved with pity. 34He went to him and bandaged his wounds, having poured oil and wine on them. Then he put him on his own animal, brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 35The next day he took out two denarii,* gave them to the innkeeper, and said, “Take care of him; and when I come back, I will repay you whatever more you spend.” 36Which of these three, do you think, was a neighbour to the man who fell into the hands of the robbers?’ 37He said, ‘The one who showed him mercy.’ Jesus said to him, ‘Go and do likewise.’

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10 February 2011

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