Psalm 137 is at once one of the most poignant and most troubling of the psalms. The poignancy comes in its personal description of the distress of Babylonian exile; the trouble is in its terrible outburst against the oppressors.
The first part of the psalm tells the story of exile in Babylon (587-538 B.C.E.). The captive Israelites cannot sing, not only because of their personal distress but also because there is no temple for the formal song of worship. Yet the enemy taunts them, asking for the impossible songs.
In exile, the pray-ers remind themselves to remember--to remember God, Jerusalem, and the destruction God's people have suffered. Israel wills itself not to sink into apathy, not to give up, but to remember what has been taken and who took it. The prayer is not unlike "Remember the Alamo!" or present Judaism's Day of Remembrance for the Holocaust, combining loss and hope, pain and determination.
The psalm now turns to ask for the downfall of the oppressors: the Edomites, who aided and abetted the Babylonians in their attacks (Obadiah 8-14; Ezekiel 25:12-14; 35:2-9), and the Babylonians themselves for their devastating terror. In their misery, the survivors want to see retribution, to see Babylon receive exactly what it gave in the siege of Jerusalem: the deaths of innocent children (see Lamentations 2:11-12; 3:64-66; 4:4, 10).
In the final stanza of his Reformation-era hymn based on this psalm ("By the Rivers of Babylon"), Wolfgang Dachstein, a contemporary of Martin Luther, provides another understanding for this harsh prayer: just as Babylon had tried to wipe out any memory of Israel by destroying Jerusalem (which Israel seeks to avoid by never ceasing to remember), now Israel asks that Babylon's memory be lost through the death of a next generation: "May you your infants now bemoan, / Their heads dashed hard against the stone, / That you too are forgotten" (my translation).
Will God answer such desperate and terrible prayers? The fierce outcries against the enemies have a place in the Psalter for a variety of reasons--especially when directed against those understood to be unjust and oppressive marauders (see the discussion above under Psalm 69). Israel gives all its pain and anger to God, and God will respond as God chooses--perhaps by overturning the oppression, perhaps by transforming the pray-ers.
1 By the rivers of Babylon
there we sat down and there we wept
when we remembered Zion.
2 On the willows* there
we hung up our harps.
3 For there our captors
asked us for songs,
and our tormentors asked for mirth, saying,
Sing us one of the songs of Zion!
4 How could we sing the Lords song
in a foreign land?
5 If I forget you, O Jerusalem,
let my right hand wither!
6 Let my tongue cling to the roof of my mouth,
if I do not remember you,
if I do not set Jerusalem
above my highest joy.
7 Remember, O Lord, against the Edomites
the day of Jerusalems fall,
how they said, Tear it down! Tear it down!
Down to its foundations!
8 O daughter Babylon, you devastator!*
Happy shall they be who pay you back
what you have done to us!
9 Happy shall they be who take your little ones
and dash them against the rock!
New Revised Standard Version Bible: Anglicized Edition, copyright © 1989, 1995 National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. http://nrsvbibles.org