As we have seen, positive statements introduce and delineate all three sections of the Decalogue. The concerns of the first section, dealing with Israel's relationship with God (vv. 6-11), and the third section, dealing with Israel's societal relationships (vv. 16-21), join forces in this central section dealing with the Sabbath ("rest" in Hebrew).
Deuteronomy's presentation of the Decalogue closely follows that of Exodus 20:2-17. It differs most, however, in its view of the Sabbath. This is curious, since the Sabbath is not mentioned in the rest of the book. Where the Exodus version of the Decalogue grounds the Sabbath in God's "rest" on the seventh day following the six days of creation (Exodus 20:8-11; compare Genesis 2:1-3), Deuteronomy offers God's deliverance of Israel from bondage in Egypt as an alternative motivation. When they were enslaved, rest was prohibited. When they observe (not "remember," as in Exodus 20:8) the Sabbath by doing no work, Israel is reminded of their liberation. By granting Sabbath rest to their families, slaves, visitors, and animals, Israel is called to transcend social and even human distinctions.
Despite Christian attempts to transform this commandment into a regulation of Sunday worship, the day itself must be what we would call Saturday, the seventh day of the week, and there are no liturgical or cultic observances or rites prescribed. The Sabbath is, as its name implies, a day of rest. Christians worship on Sunday to celebrate the resurrection.
12 Observe the sabbath day and keep it holy, as the Lord your God commanded you. 13For six days you shall labour and do all your work. 14But the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall not do any workyou, or your son or your daughter, or your male or female slave, or your ox or your donkey, or any of your livestock, or the resident alien in your towns, so that your male and female slave may rest as well as you. 15Remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your God brought you out from there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm; therefore the Lord your God commanded you to keep the sabbath day.
New Revised Standard Version Bible: Anglicized Edition, copyright © 1989, 1995 National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. http://nrsvbibles.org