• Adam and Christ. In Romans 5:12-21 Paul discusses the tragedy of Adam's trespass against God, which affected all of humanity; all people are like Adam in their rebelliousness against God. But Christ was obedient, and his righteousness is available for all. His saving work exceeds the destruction that Adam caused. Paul takes up the Adam/Christ theme also in 1 Corinthians 15:21-23, 45-49.
• The Holy Spirit. Paul speaks frequently about the Holy Spirit, using a wide range of expressions: "the Spirit of God," "the Spirit of Christ," "the Holy Spirit," "the Spirit of holiness," "the Spirit of God's Son," or simply "the Spirit." According to Paul, the Spirit prompts faith in a person (see 1 Corinthians 12:3), distributes spiritual gifts to members of the church (see 1 Corinthians 12:4-11), and empowers the life of the individual (Romans 8:1-11).
• Justification by faith. This theme is probably the first that comes to mind for many when they think of Romans (and the same is true of Paul's letter to the Galatians). It is a major theme, emphasized strongly at Romans 3:21-26, 28, 30; 5:1. All of chapter 4 is about justification by faith in the case of Abraham and the implications that flow from it for those who share the faith of Abraham. Justification by faith means that one is justified (set in a right relationship) with God purely on the basis of one's trust (or faith) in the promises of God, and not by efforts known as doing the works of the law.
• The law. For Paul, the law is holy, given by God as a gift to Israel (Romans 7:12), but it can also be misused when its ritual precepts (such as dietary commandments) are imposed upon Gentiles (as in Galatians 2:14; 5:1) and when it is used as a measure of one's presumed righteousness before God (Romans 3:19-20). According to Paul, Christians live under the lordship of Christ (not the law), but that will entail a life conformed to the will of God, which is summed up in the love commandment (Romans 13:9; see also Galatians 5:14).
• The righteousness of God. Paul speaks of "the righteousness of God" at Romans 1:17; 3:21-22, 25; 10:3; and elsewhere in his letters. The expression does not refer to some standard (such as God's justice) but to God's saving work, which is made evident in the gospel (1:17).
• Sanctification. The term refers to the process of making a person, place, or thing holy. In his letters Paul speaks of believers in Christ as persons who are sanctified already (1 Corinthians 1:2) or, in similar terminology, persons who are called to be saints, that is, sanctified persons (Romans 1:7). Persons are sanctified through baptism (1 Corinthians 6:11). On the other hand, Paul can speak of sanctification as a process in which a believer is engaged by means of a moral life (Romans 6:19-22; 1 Thessalonians 4:3).
• The weak and the strong. In Romans 14:1-15:13 Paul addresses the "weak and the strong" at Rome. The "weak" are vegetarians, observe certain days, and drink no wine (14:1-2, 5, 21). The "strong" do not abide by such regulations (14:2-5, 10), and Paul identifies with them (15:1). The former probably were Jewish Christians who continued a Jewish way of life as Christians, and most likely the latter were mainly Gentiles (Paul being an exception). Paul urges the so-called "strong" to bear with and honor the others (14:1, 3-4, 15, 19-21, 23).
• The wrath of God. The wrath of God is mentioned twelve times in Romans (1:18; 2:5 [twice], 8; 3:5; 4:15; 5:9; 9:22 [twice]; 12:19; 13:4, 5) and three times elsewhere by Paul (1 Thessalonians 1:10; 2:16; 5:9). Usually Paul says that God's wrath will be revealed at the last day as punitive judgment (Romans 2:5, 8; 3:5; 5:9; 9:22; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; 5:9), but he also says that it can be seen already in the effects of the law (that is, divine judgment, as in Romans 4:15) and in the punishment of wrongdoers by temporal rulers (Romans 13:4-5).
AUTHOR: Arland J. Hultgren, Professor Emeritus and former Asher O. and Carrie Nasby Chair of New Testament