Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13 – Laws about Homosexual Acts
SummaryThese two verses prohibit Israelite males from "lying" with a male "as with a woman" and call such behavior an "abomination."
Found in lists of laws concerning prohibited sexual activity (such as incest or bestiality), Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13 prohibit the Israelites from engaging in male homosexual acts. These two verses are arguably the most controversial ones in the Pentateuch and certainly the most controversial in Leviticus. Christians of a more traditional bent are likely to quote these laws as evidence that God abhors homosexuality. They subscribe to a "plain-sense" reading of the verses. Those of a more liberal bent seek to counter such a reading in a number of ways: They point out that Christians do not follow many of the laws in Leviticus (for example, the dietary laws or the law against wearing clothing made from two different kinds of cloth in 19:19). If we don't follow those laws, why follow this one about homosexuality? Another argument has to do with the difference between the ancient understanding of homosexuality as an aberrant behavior freely chosen and the more modern understanding of homosexuality as a permanent sexual orientation. The biblical writers, in other words, didn't know about homosexual orientation and thought that those who engaged in homosexual behavior were deliberately choosing to sin.
There are a number of other such arguments against the traditional interpretation of these verses that merit consideration. In any case, the church must continue to wrestle with these verses, and with others, as it seeks discernment of God's will on this thorny issue.