Isaiah 5:1-7 – The Song of the Vineyard
SummaryGod richly blessed and tended God's "vineyard," the chosen people, giving them everything they needed to thrive. But instead of grapes, God got wild grapes, so the vineyard must be radically pruned.
This love-song or parable is a fine example of the freedom and creativity of the prophet. We have already heard several oracles of judgment against the unfaithful people, but now the prophet gets their attention in a new way. Everyone is attracted to a ballad singer. Everyone is willing to listen to a love-song. But this one springs a trap, not unlike that of Nathan's equally creative parable of the wicked rich man who stole the poor man's beloved sheep (2 Samuel 12:1-12). In condemning the arrogance of the rich man, David condemns himself, just as the inhabitants of Jerusalem now condemn themselves in sharing the disappointment of the vineyard owner whose hard work went for nothing. Isaiah shows himself to be a brilliant and effective preacher.
The vineyard was a common image for the people of God (see especially Isaiah 27:2-6; Psalm 80:8-16; Jeremiah 2:21-22, this last text mirroring several themes found also in Isaiah). Jesus too used the vineyard metaphor in several of his parables about the kingdom of God (Matthew 20:1-16; 21:28-31; Mark 12:1-9; Luke 13:6-9). The Parable of the Wicked Tenants (Mark 12:1-9) seems deliberately to play off of this text in Isaiah.
Another example of the prophet's effective use of poetry comes with the plays on words at the end of this passage. God expects justice (Hebrew mishpat) but gets bloodshed (mispach); God expects righteousness (tsedaqah) but got a cry of violence (tse'aqah).