1 Samuel 18:1-4 – David and Jonathan
SummaryDavid's friendship with Jonathan results in Jonathan symbolically granting David the right of succession.
AnalysisMuch of David's success can be attributed to his charismatic charm. People simply liked him. While Saul was handsome, tall, and a prodigious warrior, yet essentially not liked by those around him, David seems to have won over all with whom he came in contact. This is especially true of Saul's son, Jonathan, the heir apparent to the throne, who pledges his undying love to David.
Recently, this classic tale of friendship has been interpreted as a same-sex relationship between David and Jonathan. The primary evidence for such readings interprets Jonathan's "love" (Hebrew root: ahev) for David as homosexual (see 1 Samuel 20:17; 2 Samuel 1:26). But other alleged homoerotic passages (such as Genesis 19:5 or Judges 19:22) employ the verb yada ("to know") not ahev. Ahev does suggest strong affection in the Bible; it does not seem to unambiguously imply affection for a member of one's own gender. For example, Saul is said to "love" (ahev) David, as well (1 Samuel 16:21).
Closer to the mark are those interpretations that see political overtones to the charged word "love." Thus, Jonathan's love for David points to his loyalty and devotion. This covenantal aspect of the relationship is further indicated by the appearance of "covenant" (berit) in verse 3. David's covenantal relationship with King Hiram of Tyre will also be described as "love" (same Hebrew root) in 1 Kings 5:1.
The greater importance of this passage lies in the heir apparent renouncing his right to the throne by placing his royal robes upon David (v. 4); an auspicious act that Jonathan will reaffirm in their last meeting (23:16-18). David's earlier refusal to wear Saul's armor means he will not usurp the throne (17:38-39).