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Old Testament: 2 Samuel

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David, Fabrino (1370)Second Samuel continues the story of King David begun in 1 Samuel, including his military victories, centralization of the cult in the new capital of Jerusalem, and God's promise of an eternal dynasty. David's human failings--as a person, as a father, and as a king--as well as God's judgment and grace, complete this portrait of Israel's greatest king.

So What?

The life of David, presented so graphically with all the faults of the human condition, can serve as a mirror of our own humanity. Seeing how God works in and through David can help us discern the activity of God in our own relationships with the Lord and with others.

Where Do I Find It?

Second Samuel is the tenth book in the Old Testament. It follows 1 Samuel and precedes 1 Kings.

Who Wrote It?

Ancient tradition identifies Samuel as the author of the first twenty-four chapters of 1 Samuel and asserts that the rest of 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel were completed by Nathan and Gad. Today, many scholars believe that 1 and 2 Samuel are part of the Deuteronomistic History (DtrH) and that various older traditions have been gathered together and edited by a nameless exilic editor or editors.

When Was It Written?

The final event recorded in Kings occurred in 561 B.C.E. Since the return from Babylon (538 B.C.E.) is not recorded, one assumes that 2 Samuel reached its final form sometime between these two dates (561 and 538). It was written during the Babylonian exile as part of the Deuteronomistic History, though the older traditions that comprise much of the narrative are considerably earlier than this.

What's It About?

Second Samuel recounts the long reign of David, beginning with his becoming king over Judah and Israel, followed by his brilliant military success and consolidation of the kingdom, and concluding with his failures as a human, a father, and a king.

How Do I Read It?

Second Samuel looks like a history of the new institution of kingship in Israel. While important historical information is presented, some of it is at odds with the presentation found in 1 Chronicles. Both Chronicles and Samuel should be read as theological, rather than historical, presentations of the early years of the monarchy. Second Samuel is part of a larger narrative (the Deuteronomistic History) designed to demonstrate the reasons for the fall of the northern kingdom of Israel in 722/721 B.C.E. and Judah's exile to Babylon in 587/586 B.C.E.

AUTHOR: Mark Throntveit, Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament

I. David Becomes King of Judah (2 Samuel 1:1-3:5)
The first major section of 2 Samuel describes how David became king over the southern tribe of Judah.

A. David Laments the Deaths of Saul and Jonathan (2 Samuel 1:1-27)
David laments the deaths of Saul and his friend Jonathan in a poignant elegy. After hearing the news from an Amalekite warrior who claims to have killed Saul, David has the warrior killed for having put the Lord's anointed to death.
B. David Anointed King of Judah (2 Samuel 2:1-11)
David reigns over Judah, but Ishbaal, Saul's son, reigns over the other tribes.
C. David Defeats the House of Saul (2 Samuel 2:12-3:1)
In a civil war between David's forces and the forces of Ishbaal, David's forces prevail, signaling the end of Saul's house and the beginning of David's rise.
D. Sons Born to David in Hebron (2 Samuel 3:2-5)
This is one of four lists that serve to demarcate the first four sections of 2 Samuel. Here it is a list of David's sons born to him in Hebron (see 5:13-16; 8:15-18; and 20:23-26).

II. David Becomes King of Israel (2 Samuel 3:6-5:16)
David's accession to the throne of Israel follows the same pattern as his accession to Judah's throne.

A. The Murder of Abner (2 Samuel 3:6-39)
Following Abner's attempt to transfer leadership from Ishbaal to David, Abner is murdered by Joab for killing Joab's brother Asahel in battle. Great care is taken to absolve David of any complicity in the death of Abner, Saul's cousin; in fact, the king protests his innocence and mourns the passing of the famous warrior.
B. The Murder of Ishbaal (2 Samuel 4:1-12)
Once again, David is presented as completely innocent of the death of a rival for the throne of Israel--this time Ishbaal, Saul's son. Upon hearing of Ishbaal's death, David responds in ways similar to his response at hearing of the deaths of Saul and Abner.
C. David Anointed King of Israel (2 Samuel 5:1-5)
The tribe of Judah had already anointed David as king. Now the tribes of Israel commit themselves politically to David by anointing him king of Israel as well. David consolidates his rule by making the politically neutral Jerusalem his capital and home and by defeating the Philistines, twice, all because "the LORD was with him."
D. David Captures Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:6-12)
By conquering the Jebusite city of Jebus, which separated Jerusalem from the northern tribes, changing its name to Jerusalem, and making it his capital, David successfully united the twelve tribes under his rule.
E. Children Born to David in Jerusalem (2 Samuel 5:13-16)
This is one of four lists that serve to demarcate the first four sections of 2 Samuel. Here it is a list of David's children born to him in Jerusalem (see 3:2-5; 8:15-18; and 20:23-26).

III. David Consolidates the Kingdom (2 Samuel 5:17-8:18)

These chapters present David's efforts to consolidate his kingdom. Military success against the surrounding peoples (5:17-25; 8:1-14) frames David's cultic activity in bringing the ark to Jerusalem and prayer (6:1-23; 7:18-29), which, in turn, encloses the all-important promise of a Davidic dynasty (7:1-17).

A. David Defeats the Philistines (2 Samuel 5:17-25)
In stark contrast to Saul, David succeeds in delivering Israel from the oppression of the Philistines.
B. David Brings the Ark to Jerusalem (2 Samuel 6:1-23)
David brings the ark of the covenant, the symbol of God's presence, to Jerusalem. This has the effect of making Jerusalem the Holy City, Israel's religious center, as well as David's political capital.
C. God's Covenant with David (2 Samuel 7:1-29)
In this pivotal text, God promises that David will always have a son on the throne of Judah. God's promise of a Davidic dynasty holds sway over much of the theological message of the Old Testament and becomes the basis for the messianic expectations that arose following the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E.
D. David Expands the Empire (2 Samuel 8:1-14)
A variety of materials have been gathered together to summarize David's wars, describe the extent of his kingdom, and make the theological point that "the LORD gave victory to David wherever he went."
E. David's Administrators (2 Samuel 8:15-18)
This is one of four lists that serve to demarcate the first four sections of 2 Samuel. Here it is a list of David's administrators (see 3:2-5; 5:13-16; and 20:23-26).

IV. David's Court (2 Samuel 9:1-20:26)
These chapters (and 1 Kings 1-2) are either an extended narrative describing the struggle for who will succeed David on the throne or, as most think now, an extended narrative describing the consequences of David's sin with Bathsheba.

A. David's Covenant Loyalty to Jonathan (2 Samuel 9:1-13)

In his covenant with Jonathan, David had promised to show loyalty to Jonathan's family (1 Samuel 18:1-4; 20:14-17). In this story, David shows kindness to Jonathan's son, Mephibosheth.
B. War with the Ammonites and the Arameans (2 Samuel 10:1-12:31)
David's wars with the Ammonites and the Arameans provide the context for his adulterous affair with Bathsheba and his arranged murder of her husband Uriah the Hittite. David's sin will have serious repercussions for the remainder of the book.
C. Like Father, Like Son (2 Samuel 13:1-14:33)
Three stories form a sordid tale of rape, murder, and reconciliation. Just as David's sexual misappropriation of Bathsheba had ended in the murder of Uriah, David's sons mirror his behavior in Amnon's rape of Tamar and Absalom's murder of Amnon.
D. Absalom Rebels against David (2 Samuel 15:1-19:43)
Absalom, impatient to become king himself, gathers support and foments rebellion against his father, David, forcing him to flee Jerusalem. David is emotionally torn between preserving his throne as well as the life of his rebellious son.
E. Sheba Rebels against David (2 Samuel 20:1-22)
Civil war again breaks out between Israel and Judah, this time under Sheba's rebellion. David's quick response preserved the unity of the nation. As before, Joab is blamed for the bloodshed.
F. David's Administrators (2 Samuel 20:23-26)
This is one of four lists that serve to demarcate the first four sections of 2 Samuel. Here it is a list of David's administrators (see 3:2-5; 5:13-16; and 8:15-18).

V. Epilogue (2 Samuel 21:1-24:25)
The final four chapters of 2 Samuel comprise an epilogue or appendix that gathers together several traditions, arranging them in a concentric fashion: (A) a narrative of national disaster, (B) tales of David's warriors, (C) a poem, (C') a poem, (B') tales of David's warriors, (A') a narrative of national disaster.

A. Narrative of National Disaster (2 Samuel 21:1-14)
Gibeonite vengeance for Saul's attempt to exterminate them in violation of a long-standing promise is matched by the compassionate concern for the dead shown by Saul's concubine and by David himself.
B. David's Warriors (2 Samuel 21:15-22)
These four brief accounts of single combats are similar to that between David and Goliath in 1 Samuel 17. Together with 2 Samuel 23:8-39, a second grouping concerning David's warriors, they frame two poetic pieces--"David's Hymn" and "David's Last Words."
C. David's Song of Praise (2 Samuel 22:1-51)
In this magnificent hymn, which also appears as Psalm 18, David reflects upon his reign as king and God's deliverance. David expresses thanks to God for many acts of deliverance by singing God's praise.
D. David's Last Words (2 Samuel 23:1-7)
Functioning together with David's song of praise (chapter 22) as a counterpoint to the Song of Hannah, which opened the books of Samuel, David's last words affirm that God will remain faithful to the everlasting covenant between God and the house of David.
E. David's Warriors (2 Samuel 23:8-39)
These four brief accounts of single combats are similar to that between David and Goliath in 1 Samuel 17. Together with 21:15-22 they frame two poetic pieces--David's song of praise and David's last words.
F. David's Census (2 Samuel 24:1-25)
A terrible plague, seen as God's judgment upon David for taking a census of the people, is averted after David, following the advice of a prophet, acquires some land in Jerusalem, builds an altar, and sacrifices to the Lord.

AUTHOR: Mark Throntveit, Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament

In the latter half of the eleventh century B.C.E., the major geopolitical powers in Egypt and Mesopotamia (that is, Assyria and Babylon) were preoccupied with their own internal troubles. As a result the various peoples of Syro-Palestine vied for power among themselves. In response to military threats posed by the Philistines in the west (1 Samuel 4-7; 13; 14; 17; 23; 31; 2 Samuel 5) and the Ammonites in the east (1 Samuel 11; 2 Samuel 10-12), the twelve tribes of Israel began a process of cooperation that eventually led to the anointing of Saul as king.

AUTHOR: Mark Throntveit, Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament

The book of Samuel as history. Samuel looks like history, but as one reads through it, it becomes obvious that it is very different than the history we are accustomed to reading. Accounts in Chronicles and other biblical sources are sometimes presented differently in Samuel, and are often flatly contradicted. Even within the books of Samuel there are discrepancies and contradictions. This difficult issue is somewhat eased by the recognition that no biblical book is written with contemporary canons of history. Rather than disparage the biblical author's supposed failure to conform to our ideas of history, we should try to determine the theological motivation in presenting these stories this way.

Canonical setting. The books of Samuel occupy somewhat different places in the Hebrew canon and that of modern English Bibles. In the Hebrew Bible the books of Samuel are considered part of the Former Prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings). In English Bibles the books of Samuel are considered part of the Historical Books. Ruth has been placed after Judges and before Samuel because of this historical understanding.

Chronology. The chronology of the books of Samuel is a major problem. In general, only approximate dates can be given: the events recorded in Samuel span approximately 100 years; the capture of the ark is usually placed in the middle of the eleventh century B.C.E.; Saul reigned as king from 1020-1000 B.C.E.; and David reigned from 1000-960 B.C.E.

Deuteronomistic History (DtrH). In 1943, Martin Noth argued that the books from Joshua through Kings (excluding Ruth, which is part of the Writings in the Hebrew Bible) formed a single literary and theological work. It presented the history of Israel from the exodus from Egypt to the Babylonian exile, based upon the theological perspectives of the book of Deuteronomy. While subsequent debate regarding the date and editing of this extensive work continues, many scholars think there were at least two separate editions--one in the seventh century B.C.E. during the reign of Josiah, which emphasized the unconditional nature of the promise and a positive view of kingship, and one in the sixth century, during the exile, when the conditional nature of the covenant and a negative view of the monarchy due to the failure of Israel's kings had become painfully evident. The history was written to explain why Israel had experienced exile; it traced the downfall of Israel and Judah to the people's apostasy and failure to obey the covenantal stipulations as presented in Deuteronomy and God's consequent handing them over into the hands of the Assyrians and the Babylonians.

Doublets. Samuel has an unusual number of "doublets," instances where the same story seems to be told twice, sometimes in different circumstances or with conflicting results. Most of these doublets are in 1 Samuel (see the list of doublets there); the following are in 2 Samuel:

  • Goliath killed by David…and by Elhanan (1 Samuel 17:49; 2 Samuel 21:19)
  • Saul falls on his sword and is slain by an Amalekite (1 Samuel 31:4; 2 Samuel 1:10)
  • Absalom has three sons and no son (2 Samuel 14:27; 18:18)

Historicity of David. The rather large number of discrepancies and inconsistencies in the text of Samuel and Kings has suggested to a number of recent historians that the so-called "United Kingdom" of Saul, David, and Solomon, as well as these individuals, never existed. For these historians, what we have in the books of Samuel and 1 Kings 1-11 is, rather, a fictionalized account, put together in the postexilic period, to encourage the politically demoralized exiles in Babylon or the recently returned people of Judah. Most scholars reject this "minimalist" view. Their decision to do so has been somewhat strengthened by the archaeological discovery of the Moabite Stone of King Mesha and, recently, an inscription discovered at Tel Dan, both dating to the ninth century B.C.E., which refer to the "house [that is, "the dynasty"] of David."

Parallels with 1 Chronicles. There are extensive parallels between Samuel and 1 Chronicles because the Chronicler used the books of Samuel (and 1-2 Kings) as his primary source. The most important of these parallel passages in 2 Samuel follow:

2 Samuel 1 Chronicles
3:2-5; 5:5, 14-16 3:1-9

5:1-3, 6-10 11:1-9

23:8-39 11:10-47

6:1-11 13:1-14

5:11-16, 17-25 14:1-7; 8-17

6:12-23 15; 16

7:1-29 17:1-27

8:1-18 18:1-17

10:1-19 19:1-19

11:1; 12:26-31 20:1-3

21:18-22 20:4-8

24:1-25 21:1-31

The Philistines. Throughout the books of Samuel, Israel's greatest threat came from the Philistines, a people from islands in the Aegean Sea who settled along the southern coast of Canaan after being repelled by Ramses III in a series of sea battles in the Nile Delta (1190 B.C.E.). There, they occupied some of the region's richest land and controlled the lucrative coastal trade route. The Philistines' military success is directly attributable to their monopoly in the manufacture and use of iron weapons (1 Samuel 13:19-23). In the absence of any written records, the probably pejorative biblical account of the Philistines becomes determinative. In the Bible, the Philistines are depicted as warlike, rather coarse, and uncircumcised; they worshiped Dagon as their national god in addition to other Canaanite deities such as Atargatis and Baal-zebub. Politically, they were organized as a federation under five "Serens" (Greek, tyrannoi, "tyrants"), who ruled in their five major cities (Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza). The Greek historian Herodotus named the whole area "Palestine" after the Greek form of their name (palestina, 450 B.C.E.).

Sources in Samuel. A number of sources or traditions may lie behind the books of Samuel. The following have been variously analyzed by scholars but their general extent is recognized by many:

  • boyhood stories of Samuel (1 Samuel 1-3)
  • an ark narrative (1 Samuel 4:1-7:2; possibly connected to 2 Samuel 6:1-5)
  • negative stories about Saul, or monarchy, or both, associated with Mizpah (1 Samuel 7:3-12; 8:1-22; 10:17-27; 12:1-25; 15:1-35)
  • positive stories about Saul, or monarchy, or both, associated with Gilgal (1 Samuel 9:1-10:16; 13:1-14:46; possibly 1 Samuel 11; 15; 28; 31)
  • the so-called "Court History/Succession Narrative" (2 Samuel 9-20; 1 Kings 1-2)
  • an "Appendix," intrusive to the "Succession Narrative" above, consisting of two narratives, two lists, and two poems
  • Various lists and archival material, including Saul's family (1 Samuel 14:47-52), David's sons born at Hebron (2 Samuel 3:2-5), David's sons born in Jerusalem (5:13-16), David's cabinet (8:15-18), a second listing of David's cabinet (20:23-26), David's warriors (23:8-19), and a second listing of David's warriors (24:5-9).

What kind of book is Samuel? Recent interpretation rejects the designation "history" for Samuel, at least in its modern connotation of that which is produced by a critical historian as a factual description of events in the past. Designations such as "historical story" or "theological interpretation of history" are much more common. Clearly there is a telling, or retelling, of the story in a chronological sequence, whether accurate or imposed. The authors/compilers freely rewrote, edited, and fashioned materials and traditions of varying types into a coherent presentation of the monarchy designed to make a theological point.

Why are there two books of Samuel? Originally the books of Samuel were a single work. The Masoretic notes at the end of 2 Samuel give a total of 1,506 verses for both books and indicate that 1 Samuel 28:24 is the middle verse of the book (singular in Hebrew). Samuel was divided into two books when it was translated into Greek. The Greek translation actually includes the books of Kings as well, as indicated by the entitling of Samuel-Kings as 1-4 Basileiai (1-4 Kingdoms/Reigns). This larger context is crucial and must be kept in mind at all times.

AUTHOR: Mark Throntveit, Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament

The ark. The significance of the ark of the covenant varies in the different Old Testament traditions. Here in Samuel, the Deuteronomic tradition is somewhat different from that in Kings (see the notes there), because the Deuteronomists are here incorporating earlier traditions (1 Samuel 4:2-7:2). This rather fanciful story relates the capture of the ark by the Philistines and its "adventures" in Ashdod, Gath, and Ekron, where various plagues befall its captors, including the vanquishing of Dagon, their national god (chapters 4-5). Upon its return, the people of Beth-Shemesh learned of the ark's holy power; looking inside violated its holiness and resulted in their death (chapter 6). Following its transfer to Kiriath-Jearim (6:21-7:2), it remained in obscurity until David, realizing the powerful symbolism it held for the tribes, moved it to his new capital and sanctuary in Jerusalem (2 Samuel 6).

Blueprint for kingship. First Samuel 8:10-18 warns against the people's choice of a king, who will be more interested in royal autocracy than in the Deuteronomistic blueprint (Deuternomy 17:14-20; see 1 Samuel 12:3). That blueprint may provide the "rights and duties of the kingship" that Samuel presented to the people (1 Samuel 10:25).

Canaanite religion. The indigenous religion of the Canaanites was a constant threat to the Israelites. In Samuel the following were especially troublesome:

  • Baal/baals ("lord"): the chief god of the Canaanites, essentially a fertility god (1 Samuel 7:4; 12:10; 2 Samuel 5:20-21)
  • Dagon: fish/grain god of the Philistines (11 times in 1 Samuel 5:2-7)
  • Astartes: a Canaanite fertility goddess (1 Samuel 7:3, 4; 12:10; 31:10). In Hebrew, this name is deliberately misspelled "Ashtoreth" by using the vowels of the Hebrew word for "shame."
  • mediums (28:3)
  • animism: the worship of inanimate objects, such as stones (6:14, 18; 20:19; 2 Samuel 20:8), trees (10:3; 14:2; 22:6; 31:13), and high places (9:12-14; 10:5; 22:6; 2 Samuel 1:19, 25)

Dynastic Oracle. The theological climax of the Deuteronomistic History is found in Nathan's oracle to David (2 Samuel 7). God refuses David's request to build a "house" (a temple) for the Lord by promising to build a "house" (a dynasty) for David--in effect, promising that there will always be an heir of David on Israel's throne. Later, the unconditional nature of the promise to David (and by extension the temple and even Jerusalem) was challenged by the prophets (especially Jeremiah 7; 20). After the exile, the promise began to be applied to a coming "son of David," the "Messiah." For Christians, this coming Messiah is Jesus the "Christ" (Greek for "Messiah").

Ephod. This word designates different objects in the Old Testament. In the Priestly materials it refers to the High Priest's ornate, distinctive liturgical garment (Exodus 28:6-14). In Samuel, however, it is a short tunic worn as a priestly vestment (1 Samuel 2:28; 14:3; 22:18; 2 Samuel 6:14). In 1 Samuel 23:6-10 and 30:7-8, the "ephod" seems to be a cultic object used to obtain oracles, though these texts are probably corruptions of the word "ark" (aron).

Hannah's song as theological prologue. Despite all the twists and turns of its long literary history, 1 and 2 Samuel are theologically structured as three cycles of stories, each based upon a key figure in the institution of the monarchy in Israel: Samuel (1 Samuel 1-12), Saul (1 Samuel 13-31), and David (2 Samuel 1-20). These cycles, relating the rise of kingship, are framed by magnificent psalms of praise or thanksgiving, one from Hannah (1 Samuel 2:1-10) and two from David (2 Samuel 22:1-23:7). At the heart of each is a theological statement concerning God's justice in humbling the proud and exalting the humble (1 Samuel 2:5-8; 2 Samuel 22:26-28). Thus, Saul, brought down by God, becomes the illustration of what kingship should not be; David, raised by God from obscurity to unparalleled wealth and power, becomes the model of what kingship, dependent upon God's grace, should look like; and Samuel becomes God's prophetic mediator, the one who acts on God's behalf to usher in the monarchy demanded by the people, while, at the same time, keeping the truth that God is ultimately Israel's king.

Ideal boundaries of the promised land. The ideal boundaries of the promised land were only realized in the reigns of David and Solomon: north--from Tyre on the coast to Dan; east--bounded by the Arabian Desert; west--bounded by the Mediterranean Sea; southeast--bounded by the river Arnon, east of the Dead Sea; south--bounded by a line running from the river of Egypt on the coast to Kadesh-barnea and on to the Arabah, the valley south of the Dead Sea.

Repentance. The books of Samuel have been interpreted as providing three models of repentance as seen in the portraits of Samuel, Saul, and David.

  • In 1 Samuel 3, Samuel condemned the wicked priests at Shiloh. Following the return of the ark of the covenant, he called upon the people to turn away from the gods of Canaan and turn back to God. Following their confession and repentance at Mizpah, God responded by granting them victory and peace (7:2-14).
  • In 1 Samuel 15, Saul provides a negative example of repentance. Though he says the words "I have sinned" (vv. 24, 30), he offers excuses, becomes defensive, and reveals his insincerity.
  • After being confronted by Nathan (2 Samuel 12:7), David repents in the same words as the people and Saul, "I have sinned" (12:13), but without Saul's excuses, becoming an exemplary illustration of repentance.

Reversal of fortune. In line with Hannah's articulation of the theme "The LORD makes poor and makes rich; he brings low, he also exalts" (1 Samuel 2:7), Samuel is peppered with passages of unexpected reversals of fortune at the hand of the Lord:

  • The priests of the house of Eli are brought down while the young boy Samuel is raised to the office of prophet (3:11-4:1).
  • Saul was a Benjaminite, from Israel's smallest tribe, yet he became king (9:21; 10:1).
  • As king, however, Saul is rejected by God (13:13-14; 15:22-23).
  • David, youngest son of Jesse (16:10-11) and, as Saul's son-in-law, inferior in rank to Saul's son Jonathan, is chosen king (2 Samuel 2:1-4).
  • As king, however, David is punished for his adultery and murder (2 Samuel 12:7-14) and loses power to his son Absalom (2 Samuel 15-17).
  • Absalom, in turn, dies, returning David to power and grief over his loss (chapter 18).

Not even David is free from the working out of Yahweh's reversal of fortune. The end of his reign is one of increasing strife in his family and a loss of political control. For the Deuteronomistic editors such lessons were applicable to those that had sat on the thrones of Israel and Judah, as well, and ultimately explained God's sending of Assyria against the north and Babylon against the south.

The role of prophecy. The books of Samuel present the prophets as those who announce God's word and reveal the divine will. This is seen in the major prophetic speeches that carry the plot by occurring at crucial moments in the narrative. In 1 Samuel:

  • the announcement of the fall of the house of Eli by "a man of God" (1 Samuel 2:27-36)
  • God announces the fall of the house of Eli to Samuel (1 Samuel 3:11-14)
  • Philistine "prophets" advise their leaders how to return the ark to Israel (1 Samuel 6:2-9)
  • Samuel's interpretation of Israel's demand for a king (1 Samuel 8:7-18)
  • Samuel is directed to anoint God's choice as king (1 Samuel 9:15-16)
  • Samuel's address prior to Saul being chosen king by lot (1 Samuel 10:17-19)
  • Samuel's farewell speech at the beginning of the monarchy (1 Samuel 12:6-17, 20-25)
  • Samuel's rejection of Saul (1 Samuel 15:10-11; 17-31)
  • David speaks the word of the Lord to Goliath (1 Samuel 17:45-47)
  • Gad's warning to David (1 Samuel 22:5)

AUTHOR: Mark Throntveit, Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament